1. The Government of India and the Government of Pakistan are resolved that the two countries put
an end to the conflict and confrontation that have hitherto marred their relations and work for the promotion of a friendly
and harmonious relationship and the establishment of durable peace in the subcontinent, so that both countries may henceforth
devote their resources and energies to the pressing task of advancing the welfare of their peoples.
In order to achieve this objective, the Government of India and the Government of Pakistan have
agreed as follows:
(i) That the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations shall govern the relations
between the two countries;
(ii) That the two countries are resolved to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral
negotiations or by any other peaceful means mutually agreed upon between them. Pending the final settlement of any of the
problems between the two countries, neither side shall unilaterally alter the situation and both shall prevent the organization,
assistance of encouragement of any acts detrimental to the maintenance of peaceful and harmonious relations;
(iii) That the prerequisite for reconciliation, good neighborliness and durable peace between them
is a commitment by both the countries to peaceful co-existence, respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty
and non-interference in each other's internal affairs, on the basis of equality and mutual benefit;
(iv) That the basic issues and causes of conflict which have bedeviled the relations between the
two countries for the last 25 years shall be resolved by peaceful means;
(v) That there shall always respect each other's national unity, territorial integrity, political
independence and sovereign equality;
(vi) That in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations they will refrain from the threat
of use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of each other.
2. Both Governments will take steps within their power to prevent hostile propaganda directed against
each other. Both countries will encourage the dissemination of such information as would promote the development of friendly
relations between them.
3. In order progressively to restore and normalize relations between the two countries step by step,
it was agreed that:
(i) Steps shall be taken to resume communications, postal, telegraphic, sea, land including border
posts, and air links including overflights.
(ii) Appropriate steps shall be taken to promote travel facilities for the nationals of the other
(iii) Trade and cooperation in economic and other agreed fields will be resumed as far as possible.
(iv) Exchange in the fields of science and culture will be promoted.
In this connection delegations from the two countries will meet from time to time to work out the
4. In order to initiate the process of establishment of durable peace, both the Governments agree
(i) Indian and Pakistani forces shall be withdrawn to their side of the international border.
(ii) In Jammu and Kashmir, the line of control resulting from the cease-fire
of December 17, 1971 shall
be respected by both sides without prejudice to the recognized position of either side. Neither side shall seek to alter it
unilaterally, irrespective of mutual differences and legal interpretations. Both sides further undertake to refrain from the
threat or the use of force in violation of this Line.
(iii) The withdrawals shall commence upon entry into force of this Agreement and shall be completed
within a period of 30 days thereof.
5. This Agreement will be subject to ratification by both countries in accordance with their respective
constitutional procedures and will come into force with effect from the date on which the Instruments of ratification are
6. Both Governments agree that their respective Heads will meet again at a mutually convenient time
in the future and that, in the meanwhile, the representatives of the two sides will meet to discuss further the modalities
and arrangements for the establishment of durable peace and normalization af relations, including the questions of repatriation
of prisoners of war and civilian interests, a final settlement of Jammu and Kashmir and the resumption of diplomatic relations.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Republic of India
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Simla, the 2nd July, 1972