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Kashmir History

Modern History

The modern history of Kashmir began when the British sold Jammu and Kashmir to Gulab Singh, a Hindu Dogra, for Rs 7.5 million (less than $150,000 US) in 1846. The rule of this dynasty was thus established. The Dogra rule (1846–1947) was utterly despotic and subsisted on an oppressive feudal order. The Dogras of Jammu and the small Hindu minority in Kashmir became the privileged classes and feudal lords while all others were used as vassals. The Kashmiri Muslims, in particular, received a rough deal. Legislation was passed to authorize and justify discrimination against them, avenues of government employment were practically closed on them even though they constituted over 80% of the population. This oppression was fortified by stringent laws banning all freedom of speech, expression and association. Gulab Singh died in 1857 and was replaced by Rambir Singh (1857-1885). Two other Maharajas, Partab Singh (1885-1925) and Hari Singh (1925-1949) ruled in succession. When the Dogra oppression reached its extreme, the resentment of the people of Kashmir exploded in a freedom movement in 1930.The authorities responded by opening fire and killing over 20 people on July 13, 1931. This set up a wave of agitation in the whole valley. In September the government proclaimed martial law but could not stem the rising tide of resentment. Huge processions were taken in defiance of the martial law regulations. The government opened fire on the processionists killing three people in Srinagar and 21 in Islamabad. “Muslim Conference” was founded in 1932 and freedom struggle took a concrete form. In 1934, the Maharaja gave way and allowed limited democracy in the form of a Legislative Assembly. However, unease with the Maharaja’s rule continued. Sheikh Abdullah and his associates changed the name of Muslim Conference to “National Conference” and started openly aligning with “Indian National Congress”. Choudhry Ghulam Abbas and some of his associates left the party and revived the Muslim Conference in 1941. “Quit Kashmir” agitation was started by National Conference in 1946, demanding the Dogra Maharaja to quit Kashmir. There was considerable instability in the state as the “Quit Kashmir” movement grew stronger. The Dogra regime replied with mass arrests. Azad Kashmir movement started in 1946 and gained momentum a year later. The first armed encounter between the Dogra troops and freedom fighters occurred in August 1947 as the two dominions of Pakistan and India came into existence on 14th & 15th of August 1947. People in certain parts of the state, particularly in Poonch and certain parts of the state now in Azad Kashmir, raised the banner of revolt against the Maharaja and inflicted crushing defeats on the Dogra forces. The freedom fighters were aided by certain tribes also when few hundred Muslim tribesmen from frontier province joined the battle and entered Kashmir on 0ct 22, 1947. The Maharaja found it increasingly difficult to contain the revolt and hurriedly packed up at Srinagar in the cover of darkness and fled the valley. In Jammu he arranged that India sends its army to help him crush the popular uprising. India set the condition that Maharaja must sign instrument of accession to India. Maharaja signed it and on Oct 27th, one hundred planes began airlifting the Indian troops, arms and ammunition from Delhi to Srinagar. Armed encounters between tribesmen and the Indian forces on the Kashmir soil continued for nearly 14 months, which resulted in the liberation of western and north-west provinces of state, now called Azad Kashmir. Indian troops willfully and unlawfully entered the territory of Jammu and Kashmir on 27th of October 1947. And they are still there. On January 1, 1948 India took up the Kashmir issue in UNO under Article 35 of its charter. After long debates, cease-fire came into operation on the midnight of January 1, 1949. Meanwhile on March 5, 1948, the Maharaja announced the formation of an interim Government with Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah as the Prime Minister. Subsequently, the Maharaja signed a proclamation making Yuvraj Karan Singh as the Regent.

History Of Kashmir

JKIM: First & largest Political Party of Kashmiri Shias

Copyright 2008-Ittihadul Muslimeen, Karanagar,Srinagar,Kashmir,190010