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Kashmir History

Chronology Of Events 

1947: Indian forces landed at Srinagar airport and occupied Kashmir on October 27. Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah is appointed head of the Emergency Administration.

November 6: Two Lac. Muslims were massacred in Jammu and elsewhere in the region. More than one million people were forced to migrate to Pakistan. The carnage changed the demographic complexion of the region.

1948: India takes the Kashmir problem to the United Nations Security Council on January 1 and offers to hold a plebiscite under UN supervision. On March 4, S M Abdullah was appointed Prime Minister of J&K with a Council of ministers. On August 13, a UN commission proposes that the State’s future be decided in accordance with the will of people. On December 20, Pakistan also accepts the UN resolution.

1949: A ceasefire between Indian and Pakistani forces leaves 84,000 under Pakistani control. On October 17, Indian constituent Assembly adopts Article 370 of the constitution, ensuring a special status for J&K.

1950: On March 14 UN Security Council decided to appoint a representative of the commission to carry out its work. Sir Owen Dixon was the first holder of this assignment. He formulated what is known as the ‘Dixon Plan’. The plan envisaged virtual partition of the state. Dixon held that the entire area of Jammu and Kashmir could be divided into three regions,

i) the region about which there was no doubt that it wished to accede to India

ii) the region about which there was no doubt that it wished to accede to Pakistan

iii) the region in respect of which there could be doubt about its wishes

He recommended that a plebiscite should be held only in regards the region falling in the third category. The ‘Dixon Plan’ was rejected both by India and Pakistan

1951: An interim constitution for the state comes into effect in November

1952: An agreement is arrived at on July 24 between Sheikh Abdullah and Government of India which provides for the states autonomy within India. This agreement made provision for the state like J&K to have its own flag. The year also saw acrimony growing between Sheikh Abdullah and India, with the former criticizing latter for communal nature and even on July 13, Sheikh declared that interference of New Delhi in affairs of the state wont be tolerated.

1953: The New York Times in its July 5 issue published a map hinting at the independent status of the valley. On July 13 Sheikh commented that, “It is not necessary that our state should become an appendage of either India or Pakistan.” On August 9, Sheikh Abdullah is dismissed and arrested. Bakshi Ghualm Mohammed becomes the Prime Minister. The governments of India and Pakistan agree to appoint a plebiscite administrator by the end of April 1954.

1955: Violence and demonstrations across the valley occur on December 27, when the holy relic is found missing from the Hazratbal Shrine

1963: The holy relic of Prophet Mohammad (SAW) at the Hazratbal mosque mysteriously disappeared on December 27, 1963.

1964: The holy relic is recovered on January 4. Protest demonstration occur in Kashmir on December 21, against articles 356 and 357 of the Indian constitution being extended to the state.

1965: India and Pakistan go to war, after armed Pakistani infiltrators cross the ceasefire line on August 5, and the international border in Chamb in September. The war ends in a ceasefire on September 23. The denominations ‘Prime Minister’ and ‘Sadr e Riyasat’ are changed to ‘Chief Minister’ and ‘Governor’ respectively through an amendment of the J&K constitution with effect from May 30 1965. Prime Minister G M Sadiq becomes Chief Minister.

1966: Al Fateh comes into being with a call of Independent Kashmir. Tashkent declaration on Jan 10.

1967: Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah released on December 8. 

1968: State People’s Convention opened in Srinagar on Oct 10.

1971: Indian Airlines plane hijacked to Lahore during its flight from Srinagar to Jammu on Jan 30. Bangladesh war on Dec 3. G.M. Sadiq died and Mir Qasim sworn in as Chief Minister on Dec 12.  

1974: Parthasarthy and Beg signed "Agreed Conclusions" as emissaries of Indira Gandhi and Sheikh Abdullah on Nov 13. 

1975: Sheikh Abdullah sworn in as chief minister on Feb 25, with support of Congress Legistature Party. Emergency declared in J&K on June 29. Plebiscite Front dissolved on July 5.

1977: Congress withdrew support to Sheikh Government, State Assembly dissolved on March 26. Governor’s rule proclaimed for the first time. On June 30, elections in J&K are held. Authorities claim free and fair elections but critics call them manipulated

1981: Sheikh Abdullah nominates his son Farooq as his political heir

1982: Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah dies on Sept 8. Farooq Abdullah Sworn in as the chief minister. J & K grant of permit for Resettlement Act, 1982 given with the aim to provide for the resettlement of Nov 6, 1947 victims who migrated to PoK or Pakistan itself. On October 4 bill passed by the assembly for the second time with Farooq Adullah the Chief Minister.

1983: Congress starts campaign to discredit Farooq Abdullah and his victory in assembly elections in June. Relations with Farooq and Mrs Indira Gandhi worsened as former kept association with the opposition parties and invited them to a conclave in Srinagar within months of becoming chief minister. Three bomb explosions in Srinagar

1984: Indian authorities hang to death Maqbool Bhat, founder member of Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) on February 11. He was charged for killing two intelligence officers besides indulging in anti-national activities. Farooq Government dismissed; G M Shah sworn-in as Chief Minister with support of Congress on July 2.

1986: Shah govt dismissed on March 7. Assembly kept under suspended animation; Governor rule imposed in the State. President’s rule imposed for the first time in the State after expiry of six months of Governor’s rule on September 7. By November Farooq is back in power after coming to an agreement with Rajiv Gandhi.

1987: The Muslim United Front comes into being in January under the leadership of Maulana Abbas Ansari when various organizations come together to oppose the National Conference-Congress electoral alliance. Farooq wins elections in March but faces allegations of rigging.

1988: Protests begin in valley along with anti India demonstrations. At least 10 people are killed and curfew is placed in the valley in August. JKLF emerges with the call of independence. Violence begins with bomb explosions rocking the city on 1st Aug.

1989: Rubaiya Sayeed, daughter of home minister of India, Mufti Sayeed kidnapped by JKLF. On Dec 13, Rubaiya is released in exchange of 5 JKLF men, whose release from the prison results in victory celebrations in Srinagar. Two days later curfew is placed in the valley after 5 people are killed in police firing.

1990: Farooq Abdullah resigns. On Jan 20 around 100 people are killed when protestors seeking freedom from Indian occupation are fired upon from both sides of Gawkadal Bridge in Srinagar. State Assembly dissolved by Governor Jagmohan on Feb 19.  In March mass exodus of Kashmiri Pandits takes place.

1991: May 21, Mirwaiz Molvi Mohammad Farooq assassinated. The violence continues. Kashmir Valley declared disturbed area on July 18.

1992: The violence continues, spreading to the areas of Jammu province like Doda. Jammu and Kashmir Hizbul Mujahideen (JKHM) which strives for merger of J&K with Pakistan increases its strength dramatically. Differences arise between JKHM and JKLF. Other militant organizations proliferate. Allegations of human rights violations by the Indian soldiers increase.

1993: In Jan 40 people are killed in Sopore by Indian soldiers who burn down a section of the town after two of their men are killed. In October militants inside Hazratbal Shrine are surrounded by security forces. After several days of siege Indian soldiers open fire on protestors in Bijbehara on October 22 killing about 43 and injuring more than 100.

1994: Association of Parents of Disappeared comes into being to impress upon the government to disclose the whereabouts of persons subjected to enforced disappearances by Indian soldiers and to put an end to this practice.

1997: Indian and Pakistani leaders meet several times to discuss the diffusion of tension in Kashmir. 1997 Indian and Pakistani leaders meet several times to discuss the diffusion of tension in Kashmir.

1998: In May, India conducts underground nuclear tests near the Pakistani border which are met by international condemnation. Pakistan conducts similar tests three weeks later.

1999: The Indian Army patrols detect intruders on Kargil ridges in Kashmir and India fights to regain lost territory. Two months later Pakistani and Indian military officials agree to end the fighting in the region and disengage their forces.

2001: In May India ends a six-month military ceasefire against Islamic guerillas in Kashmir while also inviting Pakistani President, General Pervez Musharraf, to peace talks. President Musharraf and Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee meet in Agra, in July for a three-day summit. The talks fail to produce a joint statement on Kashmir. In October Militants attack the Kashmiri assembly in Srinagar, leaving 38 people dead. Kashmir chief minister Farooq Abdullah urges the Indian government to launch a crackdown on militant training camps across the border in Pakistan.

On December 13, 2001 unidentified men attack the Indian Parliament in New Delhi, leaving 14 dead, including the attackers.

2002: The row over the parliament attack triggers military build-up, diplomatic sanctions, and closure of transport links between the two nations. In May militants attack an army camp in Indian Kashmir, killing more than 30 people and ruining a new effort to ease the tension between India and Pakistan. India's Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee visits the front lines. In a speech to soldiers on the border with Pakistan he says that the time is right for a decisive battle. In October four rounds of polls to choose a new government conclude in Indian-controlled Kashmir. About 500 people are killed during the blood-soaked election campaign.

2003: In May India announces the resumption of a bus service between Delhi and Lahore. Diplomatic links are resumed. On July 12, 2003, APHC unanimously elected Maulana Abbas Ansari, as its Chairman, incidentally, the first Shia to head the Hurriyat. After years of refusing to talk to Kashmiri separatist groups, India announces it is prepared to hold negotiations with the APHC. In November India agrees to a Pakistani offer of a cease-fire along their borders in the disputed region of Kashmir. The cease-fire goes into effect November 26.

2004: On 22nd Jan 2004, an APHC delegation led by Maulana Abbas Ansari and comprising of Mirwaiz Umar Farooq, Prof Abdul Ghani Bhat, Bilal Ghani Lone and Fazal-ul-Haq Qureshi negotiated with deputy prime minister of India L K Advani in New Delhi. The next round of APHC discussion with Indian government took place in the latter part of March. On May 21,2004, Maulana Abbas Ansari announced at martyrs graveyard in Iddgah, Srinagar that he was resigning his post in an effort to bring about the reunification of the coalition's factions.

2005: First passengers from either side of the Line of Control cross divided Kashmir on 7th April as the first Srinagar Muzaffarabad Bus Service is launched. Hurriyet leaders visited Pakistan and Muzaffarabad in june 2005 crossing LOC by bus. On October 8 a massive earthquake measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale causes widespread devastation mostly in Azad Kashmir and parts under Indian control. Five points are opened along the line of control for exchange of relief material and cross over of quake survivors.

History Of Kashmir

JKIM: First & largest Political Party of Kashmiri Shias

Copyright 2008-Ittihadul Muslimeen, Karanagar,Srinagar,Kashmir,190010